Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

The Holy Month, one of the most sacred in Islam is here again. This is the place to discuss and post facts and everything else about fasting and Ramadhan.
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Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 01 Sep 2011, 17:16

(bismillah)
(salam)

In this thread we can discuss rulings about the Kaffara for the broken or missed fast as per the rulings of Seyyid Sistani.

We can discuss and post questions
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Re: Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 01 Sep 2011, 17:18

Fasting » Obligatory Qadha Fast and Kaffarah

1667. In the following situations, both qadha and Kaffarah become obligatory, provided these acts are committed intentionally, voluntarily and without any force or pressure, during the fasts of Ramadhan:

1. Eating
2. Drinking
3. Sexual Intercourse
4. Masturbation
5. Staying in the state of Janabat till the time of Fajr prayers

And as a recommended precaution, invalidating the fast due to reasons other than those mentioned above, should also be recompensed with Kaffarah, besides the obligatory qadha.

1668. If a person commits any of the foregoing acts with an absolute certitude that it does not invalidate fast, Kaffarah will not be obligatory on him.

source: http://www.sistani.org/index.php?p=2513 ... 8&pid=2275
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Re: Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 01 Sep 2011, 17:20

Fasting » Kaffarah for Fast

1669. The Kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Ramadhan is to:

* (a) free a slave, or
* (b) fast for two months or
* (c) feed sixty poor to their fill or give one mudd (= 3/4 kg.) of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread etc. to each of them.

And if it is not possible for him to fulfil any of these, he should give Sadaqa according to his means and seek Divine forgiveness. And the obligatory precaution is that he should give Kaffarah as and when he is capable to do so.

1670. A person who intends fasting for two months as a Kaffarah for a fast of Ramadhan, should fast continuously for one month and one day, and it would not matter if he did not maintain continuity for completion of the remaining fasts.

1671. A person who intends fasting for two months as a Kaffarah for a fast of Ramadhan, should not commence fasting at such time when he knows that within a month and one day, days like Eid-ul-Azha will fall when it would be haraam to fast.

1672. If a person who must fast continuously, fails to fast on any day in the period without any just excuse, he should commence fasting all over again.

1673. If a person who must fast continuously, is unable to maintain the continuity due to an excuse beyond control, like, Haidh or Nifas or a journey, which one is obliged to undertake, it will not be obligatory on him/her after the excuse is removed, to commence fasting again from the beginning. He/she should proceed to observe the remaining fasts.

1674. If a person breaks his fast with something haraam, whether it is haraam in itself, like, wine or adultery or has become haraam due to some reason like, any food which is normally permissible but it is injurious to his health, or if he has sexual intercourse with his wife during Haidth, he will have to observe all the three Kaffarah, as a recommended precaution. It means that he should set free a slave, fast for two months and also feed sixty poor to their fill, or give one mudd of wheat, barley, bread etc. to each of them. If it is not possible for him to give all the three Kaffarah, he should perform any one Kaffarah which he can possibly give.

1675. If a fasting person intentionally imputes lies to Allah or the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the recommended precaution is that he should give all the three Kaffarah as detailed above.

1676. If a fasting person engages in sexual intercourse several times a day during Ramadhan or commits masturbation, one Kaffarah becomes obligatory on him. But, as a recommended precaution, he should give a Kaffarah each time he engages in sexual intercourse.

1677. If a fasting person repeats an act which invalidates fast of Ramadhan other than sexual intercourse and masturbation, one Kaffarah will be sufficient for all.

1678. If a fasting person commits an act which invalidates a fast other than sexual intercourse, and then has sexual intercourse with his wife, one Kaffarah will suffice for both the acts.

1679. If a fasting person commits a halal act to invalidate a fast, like, if he drinks water and thereafter commits another act which is haraam and invalidates a fast, like, if he eats haraam food, one Kaffarah will suffice.

1680. If a fasting person belches and swallows intentionally that which comes in his mouth, his fast becomes void, and he should give its qadha and Kaffarah also. And if the thing which comes to his mouth is haraam to consume, like, blood or some food which no more looks like food, and he swallows it intentionally, he will give the qadha of that fast, and as a recommended precaution, give all the three Kaffarah.

1681. If a person takes a vow that he would fast on a particular day, and if he invalidates his fast intentionally on that day, he should give Kaffarah, the one for which one becomes liable upon breaking a vow. The details will come in the relevant Chapter.

1682. If a fasting person breaks his fast when someone unreliable informs him that Maghrib has set in, and he later learns that Maghrib had not set in, or doubts whether it had set in or not, it is obligatory on him to give qadha and Kaffarah.

1683. If a person who has intentionally invalidated his fast travels after Zuhr or before Zuhr to escape the Kaffarah, he will not be exempted from the Kaffarah. In fact, if he has to proceed unexpectedly on a journey before Zuhr, even then it is obligatory for him to give Kaffarah.

1684. If a person invalidates the fast intentionally and then an excuse like Haidth, Nifas or sickness arises, the recommended precaution is that he/she should give a Kaffarah.

1685. If a person was certain that it was the first day of Ramadhan and invalidated his fast intentionally, and it transpired later that it was the last day of Sha'ban it would not be obligatory on him to give Kaffarah.

1686. If a person doubts whether it is the last day of Ramadhan or the first day of Shawwal and invalidates his fast intentionally, and it transpires later that it is the first day of Shawwal, it will not be obligatory on him to give Kaffarah.

1687. If a man who is fasting in the month of Ramadhan has sexual intercourse with his wife who is also fasting and if he has compelled her for that, he should give Kaffarah for his own fast and as a precaution, also for his wife's. And if she had wilfully consented to the sexual intercourse, a Kaffarah becomes obligatory on each of them.

1688. If a woman compels her fasting husband to have sexual intercourse with her, it is not obligatory on her to give Kaffarah for her husband's fast.

1689. If a man who is fasting in Ramadhan compels his wife for sexual intercourse, and if the woman expresses her agreement during the intercourse, the man should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, give two Kaffarah and the woman should give one Kaffarah.

1690. If a man who is observing fast in Ramadhan has sexual intercourse with his fasting wife who is asleep, one Kaffarah becomes obligatory on him. But the wife's fast is in order and she will not give any Kaffarah.

1691. If a man compels his wife or a woman compels her husband to commit an act which makes the fast void, other than the sexual intercourse, it will not be obligatory upon any of them to give any Kaffarah.

1692. A man who does not observe fast due to travelling or illness, cannot compel his fasting wife to have sexual intercourse. But, if he compels her, Kaffarah will not be obligatory on him either.

1693. One should not be negligent about giving Kaffarah. But, it is not necessary to give it immediately.

1694. If Kaffarah has become obligatory on a person and if he fails to fulfil it for some years, no increase in the Kaffarah takes place.

1695. When a person is required to feed sixty poor by way of Kaffarah for one fast, and if he has access to all of them, he cannot give to any one of them more than one mudd of food, or feed a poor man more than once, calculating it as feeding more than one person. However, he can give to a poor person one mudd of food for each member of his family, even if they may be minors.

1696. If a person offering qadha of a fast of Ramadhan intentionally breaks his fast after Zuhr, he should give food to ten poor persons, one mudd to each, and if he cannot do this, he should observe fast for three days.

source: http://www.sistani.org/index.php?p=2513 ... 8&pid=2276
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Re: Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 01 Sep 2011, 17:34

Fasting » Occasions on which it is obligatory to observe the Qadha only

1697. In the following cases it is obligatory on a person to observe a qadha fast only and it is not obligatory on him to give a Kaffarah:

1. If a person is in Janabat during a night of Ramadhan and as detailed in rule no. 1639 does not wake up from his second sleep till the time of Fajr prayers.
2. If he does not commit an act which invalidates a fast but did not make Niyyat to observe fast, or fasts to show off intends not to fast at all, or decides to commit an act which invalidates a fast, then as an obligatory precaution, he must give its qadha.
3. If he forgets to do Ghusl of Janabat during the month of Ramadhan and fasts for one or more days in the state of Janabat.
4. If in the month of Ramadhan, a man without investigating as to whether Fajr has set in or not commits an act, which invalidates a fast, and it becomes known later that it was Fajr, he should as a precaution and with the Niyyat of Qurbat, refrain from committing any further acts which invalidate the fast, and give its qadha also.
5. If someone else informs that it is not Fajr yet, and on the basis of his statement one commits an act which invalidates a fast and it is later found out that it was Fajr.
6. If someone informs that it is Fajr and not believing his word or thinking that the fellow is joking, he commits, without investigating, an act which invalidates a fast and it becomes known later that it was Fajr.
7. If a blind person, or any one like him, breaks his fast relying on the statement of another person, and it is known later that Maghrib had not set in.
8. When a person is certain that Maghrib has set in, and breaks his feet accordingly, and later he learns that it was not Maghrib, he must give qadha. But if he believed that Maghrib had set in because of cloudy weather, and broke his fast, and later it became evident that Maghrib had not set in, he will observe qadha of that fast as a precautionary measure.
9. When one rinses his mouth with water because it has dried due to thirst and the water uncontrollably goes down one's throat, qadha has to be given. Similarly, as a recommended precaution, one should give a qadha if the mouthwash was for a wudhu for Mustahab prayers, and the water went down the throat.
But if he forgets that he has kept a fast, or if he does the mouthwash, not because of thirst, but for a wudhu for an obligatory prayers and water is uncontrollably swallowed, there will be no qadha.
10. If a person breaks his fast due to duress, helplessness or taqayyah, he will observe qadha of the fast, but it is not obligatory on him to give a Kaffarah.

1698. If a fasting person puts something other than water in his mouth and it goes down the throat involuntarily, or puts water in his nose and it goes down involuntarily, it will not be obligatory on him to observe qadha of the fast.

1699. It is Makrooh to do excessive mouth washing for a fasting person, and after the mouthwash if he wishes to swallow saliva, it is better that he spits it out three times before doing so.

1700. If a person knows or feels that if he does a mouthwash water will seep down his throat involuntarily, he should avoid it. And as an obligatory precaution, he should avoid the mouthwash if he knows or feels that water may trickle down his throat due to his own forgetfulness.

1701. If in the month of Ramadhan, a person becomes sure after investigation that it is not Fajr and commits an act which invalidates a fast, and it is later known that it was Fajr already, it will not be necessary for him to offer qadha of that fast.

1702. If a person doubts whether or not Maghrib has set in, he cannot break his fast. But if he doubts whether or not it is Fajr he can commit, even before investigation, an act which invalidates a fast.

source: http://www.sistani.org/index.php?p=2513 ... 8&pid=2277
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Re: Fasting: Kaffara | Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 01 Sep 2011, 17:39

Fasting » Rules regarding the Qadha fasts

1703. If an insane recovers and becomes sane, it will not be obligatory on him to offer qadha for the fasts which he did not observe when he was insane.

1704. If an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, it is not obligatory on him to offer qadha for the fasts of the period during which he was an unbeliever. However, if a Muslim apostatises and becomes Muslim again, he must observe qadha for the fasts of the period during which he remained an apostate.

1705. A person must offer qadha for the fasts left out due to being intoxicated, even if the intoxicant was taken by him for the purpose of medical treatment.

1706. If a person did not fast on certain days because of some excuse and later doubts about the exact date on which the excuse was over, it will not be obligatory on him to offer qadha basing his calculation on the higher number. For example, if a person travelled before the commencement of the month of Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he returned on the 5th of Ramadhan or on the 6th, or if he travelled in the last days of the month of Ramadhan and returned after Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he travelled on the 25th of Ramadhan or on the 26th, in both the cases, he can observe qadha based on the lesser number of days, that is, five days. However, the recommended precaution is that he should offer qadha for the higher number of days, that is, six days.

1707. If a person has to give qadha for Ramadhan fasts of several years, he can begin with the qadha of Ramadhan of any year as he likes. But, if the time for qadha fasts of the last Ramadhan is short, like, if he has to observe five qadha fasts of the last Ramadhan and only five days are left before the commencement of approaching Ramadhan, it is better to observe qadha fasts of last Ramadhan.

1708. If a person has qadha fasts of the month of Ramadhan for several years, and while making Niyyat he does not specify to which year the fasts belong, they will not be reckoned to be the qadha of the last year.

1709. A person who observes a qadha for the fast of Ramadhan can break his fast before Zuhr. However, if the time for qadha fast is short, it is better not to break it.

1710. If a person observes qadha fast of a dead person, it is better not to break the fast after Zuhr.

1711. If a person does not observe the fasts of the month of Ramadhan due to illness, Haidh or Nifas and dies before he/she can give qadha in time, he/she will not have any qadha liability.

1712. If a person does not fast in the month of Ramadhan due to illness and his illness continues till next Ramadhan, it is not obligatory on him to observe qadha of the fasts which he had not observed, but for each fast he should give one mudd of food like, wheat, barley, bread etc. to poor.
And if he did not observe fast owing to some other excuse, like, if he did not fast because of travelling and his excuse continued till next Ramadhan, he should observe its qadha fasts, and the obligatory precaution is that for each day he should give one mudd of food to poor.

1713. If a person did not fast in Ramadhan due to illness, and his illness ended after Ramadhan, but there emerged another excuse due to which he could not observe the qadha fasts till next Ramadhan, he should offer qadha for the fasts which he did not observe.
Also, if he had an excuse other than illness during Ramadhan, and that excuse ended after Ramadhan, but he then fell ill and could not give qadha till next Ramadhan because of that illness, he will offer the qadha for the fasts he did not observe and, on the basis of obligatory precaution, he will give one mudd of food to poor for each day.

1714. If a person does not observe fasts in the month of Ramadhan owing to some excuse and his excuse is removed after Ramadhan, yet he does not observe the qadha fasts intentionally till next Ramadhan, he has to give qadha of the fasts and should also give one mudd of food to poor for each fast.

1715. If a person deliberately ignores observing qadha till the time left is short, and during that short time he develops an excuse, he has to give qadha and as a precaution, give one mudd of food to poor for each day. Similarly, if after the excuse is over, he firmly decides to give qadha, but is unable to do so because of some fresh excuse during that short time, he will follow the above rule.

1716. If the illness of a person continues for very long, protracted over many years, he should, after being cured, observe the qadha fasts of the last Ramadhan, and for each day of the earlier years he should give one mudd of food to poor.

1717. A person who has to give one mudd of food to poor for each day, can give food of Kaffarah of a few days to one poor person.

1718. If a person delays observing qadha fasts of the month of Ramadhan for a few years, he should give the qadha and should on account of delay in the first year, give one mudd of food to a poor person for each day. As for the delay in the subsequent years, nothing is obligatory on him.

1719. If a person does not observe fasts of the month of Ramadhan intentionally, he should give their qadha and for each day left out, he should observe fast for two months or feed sixty poor persons or set a slave free, and if he does not observe the qadha till next Ramadhan, he should also give one mudd of food for each day as a Kaffarah.

1720. If a person does not observe fast of the month of Ramadhan intentionally, and commits sexual intercourse or masturbation several times during the day, the Kaffarah does not multiply together with it. Similarly, if he performs other acts which invalidate the fast, like eating several times, one Kaffarah will suffice.

1721. After the death of a person his eldest son, as an obligatory precaution, should observe his qadha fasts as explained in connection with the prayers earlier.

1722. If a father had not observed obligatory fasts other than the fasts of the month of Ramadhan, like, a fast of Nadhr, the recommended precaution is that his eldest son should observe its qadha. However, if the father was hired for observing fasts on behalf of a dead person, but he did not observe them, it is not obligatory for the eldest son to offer them.

source: http://www.sistani.org/index.php?p=2513 ... 8&pid=2278

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