Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

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Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 31 Aug 2011, 03:15

(bismillah)
(salam)

Inshallah this thread can be used to discuss the various legal rulings governing the Zakaat of Fitrah, the disposal of fitrah and the rulings of eid ul fitr prayers.

I will post the various rulings of Seyyid Sistani on the above topics. We can then post our questions on the same to discuss further.
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Re: Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 31 Aug 2011, 03:16

Zakat of Fitrah - Seyyid Sistani
[http://www.al-islam.org/laws/zakat2.html#1999]

1999. * At the time of sunset on Eid ul fitr night (i.e. the night preceding Eid day), whoever is adult and sane and is neither unconscious, nor poor, nor the slave of another, he should give, on his own behalf as well as on behalf of all those who are his dependents, about three kilos per head of wheat or barley or dates or raisins or rice or millet etc. It is also sufficient if he pays the price of one of these items in cash. As per obligatory precaution, he should not give from that food which is not staple in his place, even if it be wheat, barley, dates or raisins.

2000. If a person is not in a position to meet his own expenses, as well as those of his family, for a period of one year, and has also no one who can meet these expenses, then he is a poor person, and it is not obligatory on him to pay Zakat of fitrah.

2001. One should pay Fitrah on behalf of all those persons who are treated as his dependents at his house on the nightfall of Eid ul fitr, whether they be young or old, Muslims or non-Muslims; irrespective of whether or not it is obligatory on him to maintain them, and whether they are in his own town or in some other town.

2002. If a person appoints his dependent who is in another town, to pay his own fitrah from his property, and is satisfied that he will pay the fitrah, it will not be necessary for the person to pay that dependent's fitrah.

2003. * It is obligatory to pay the fitrah of a guest who arrives at his house before sunset on Eid ul fitr night, with his consent, and he becomes his temporary dependent .

2004. The fitrah of a guest who arrives at his house on the night of Eid ul fitr before sunset, without his consent, and stays with him for some time, is also, as per obligatory precaution, wajib upon the host. Similarly, if he is forced to maintain someone, his fitrah will also be obligatory upon him.

2005. If a guest arrives after sunset on Eid ul fitr night, and is considered to be dependent upon the master of the house, payment of his fitrah is obligatory on the master of the house, as an obligatory precaution; but otherwise it is not obligatory, even if he may have invited him before sunset and may have broken his fast at his house.

2006. If a person is insane at the time of sunset on the night of Eid ul fitr, and his insanity continues till Zuhr on Eid ul fitr, it is not obligatory on him to pay the fitrah. Otherwise it is necessary for him as an obligatory precaution to give fitrah.

2007. * If a child becomes baligh, or an insane person becomes sane, or a poor person becomes self sufficient during sunset, and satisfies the conditions of fitrah becoming obligatory on him, he should give fitrah.

2008. If it is not obligatory on a person to pay fitrah at the time of sunset on the night of Eid ul fitr, but necessary conditions making fitrah obligatory on him develop before Zuhr on Eid day, the obligatory precaution is that he should pay fitrah.

2009. If a non-Muslim becomes a Muslim after the sunset on the night of Eid ul fitr, it is not obligatory on him to pay fitrah. But if a Muslim who was not a Shi'ah becomes a Shi'ah after sighting the moon, he should pay fitrah.

2010. * It is Mustahab that a person who affords only one sa'a (about 3 kilos) of wheat etc. should also pay fitrah. And if he has family members and wishes to pay their fitrah as well, he can give that one sa'a to one of his family members with the intention of fitrah and that member can give it to another family member, and so on, till the turn of the last person comes; and it is better that the last person gives what he receives to a person who is not one of them. And if one of them is a minor, his guardian can take fitrah on his behalf, and the precaution is the thing taken for the minor should not be given to anyone else.

2011. If one's child is born after the sunset on the night of Eid ul fitr, it is not obligatory to give its fitrah. However, the obligatory precaution is that one should pay the fitrah of all those who are considered one's dependents after sunset, till before the Zuhr of Eid.

2012. * If one who was dependent of a person, and becomes dependent of another before sunset, fitrah is obligatory on the other person whose dependent one has become. For example, if one's daughter goes to her husband's house before sunset, her husband should pay her fitrah.

2013. If the fitrah of a person is obligatory on another person, it is not obligatory on him to give his fitrah himself.

2014. * If it is obligatory on a person to pay the fitrah of another person, but he does not pay it, its payment will be, as an obligatory precaution, obligatory on the latter. So, if all the conditions mentioned in rule 1999 are fulfilled, he must pay his own fitrah.

2015. If it is obligatory on a person to pay the fitrah of another person, his obligation will not end if the latter himself pays his own fitrah.

2016. In the case of a wife who is not maintained by her husband, is she is dependent upon someone else, that person will have to pay her fitrah. But if she is not dependent on anyone else, she will pay her own fitrah if she is not poor.

2017. A person, who is not a Sayyid, cannot give fitra to a Sayyid, and if that Sayyid is his dependent, he cannot give to another Sayyid either.

2018. The fitrah of a child who sucks the milk of its mother or a nurse, is payable by one who bears the expenses of the mother or the nurse. But, if the mother or the nurse is maintained by the property of the child itself, payment of fitrah for the child is not obligatory on any one.

2019. Even if a person maintains the members of his family by haraam means, he should pay their fitrah out of halal property.

2020. * If a person employs someone like a carpenter, or a servant, and agrees to maintain him fully, he should pay his fitrah as well. But if he agrees that he would pay him for his labour, it is not obligatory on him to pay his fitrah.

2021. * If a person dies before sunset on the night of Eid ul fitr, it is not wajib to pay his fitrah or that of his family, from his estate. But if he dies after sunset, it is commonly held that fitrah will be obligatory, but it is not devoid of Ishkal. However, it is better to act on precaution, and pay his fitrah as well as that of his family.
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Re: Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 31 Aug 2011, 03:16

Disposal of Fitra

2022. * As an obligatory precaution Fitrah should be paid to Shiah poor only, who fulfil the conditions mentioned for those who deserve receiving Zakat. But if there is no deserving Shiah in one's hometown, it can be given to other deserving Muslims. But in no circumstances should Fitrah be given to Nasibi - the enemies of Ahlul Bait (A.S)

2023. If a Shiah child is poor, one can spend fitrah on him, or make it his property by entrusting it to its guardian.

2024. * It is not necessary that the poor to whom fitrah is given should be Adil (a just person). But, as an obligatory precaution, fitrah must not be given to a drunkard, or one who does not offer his daily prayers, or commits sins openly.

2025. Fitrah should not be given to a person who spends it on sinful acts.

2026. * The recommended precaution is that a poor person should not be given fitrah which is less than a sa'a (about 3 kilos). However, there is no harm if more than that is given to him.

2027. * When the price of a superior quality of a commodity is double that of the ordinary, like, when the price of a particular kind of wheat is double that of the price of its ordinary kind, it is not sufficient to give half a sa'a of the wheat of superior quality as fitrah. Also, it is not sufficient if the value of half a sa'a is given with the Niyyat of fitrah.

2028. One cannot give as fitrah, half a sa'a of one commodity (eg. wheat) and half a sa'a of another commodity (eg. barley), and if he gives these with the Niyyat of paying the price of fitrah even then it is not sufficient.

2029. * It is Mustahab that while giving Zakat of fitrah, one should give preference to one's poor relatives and neighbours, and then to give preference to the learned persons over others.

2030. * If a man gives fitrah to a person thinking that he is poor, and understands later that he was not poor, and if the property which he gave to him has not ceased to exist, he should take it back from him, and give it to a person who deserves. But if he cannot take it back from him, he should replace it from his own property. And if what he gave as fitrah is used up, and the person who took fitrah knew that he had received fitrah, he should gives its substitute, but if he did not know it, it is not obligatory on him to give substitute, and the man who gave fitrah should give it once again.

2031. * If a person claims to be poor, fitrah cannot be given to him unless one is satisfied with his claim; or, if one knows that the claimant has been poor previously.

Miscellaneous Matters Regarding Fitrah.

2032. * One should give fitrah with the Niyyat of Qurbat, that is, to fulfil the orders of Almighty Allah, and should intend to be giving fitrah at the time of disposal.

2033. * It is not correct to give fitrah before the month of Ramadhan, and it is better that it should not be given even during the month of Ramadhan. However, if a person gives loan to a poor person before Ramadhan, and adjusts the loan against fitrah, when payment of fitrah becomes obligatory, there is no harm in it.

2034. * It is necessary that wheat or any other thing which a person gives as fitrah is not mixed with another commodity or dust, and if it is mixed, but in its pure form it equals a sa'a (about 3 kilos) and the quantity of the thing mixed with it is negligible or usable, there is no harm in it.

2035. If a person gives fitrah from a thing which is inferior or defective, it will not be sufficient.

2036. If a person gives fitrah on behalf of a number of persons, it is not necessary for him to pay all from the same commodity. For example, if he gives wheat as fitrah of some of them of and barley for others, it is sufficient.

2037. If a person offers Eid ul fitr prayers, he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, give fitrah before Eid prayers. But if he does not offer Eid prayers, he can delay giving fitrah till Zuhr.

2038. If a person sets aside fitrah from his main wealth, and does not give it to a person entitled to receive it till Zuhr of Eid day, he should make Niyyat of fitrah as and when he gives it.

2039. If a person does not give fitrah at the time when its payment becomes obligatory, and does not also set it aside, he should give fitrah later on the basis of precaution, without making the Niyyat of ada or qadha.

2040. If a person sets aside fitrah, he cannot take it for his own use, and replace it with another sum or thing.

2041. If a person possesses wealth whose value is more than fitrah, and if he does not give fitrah but makes a Niyyat that a part of that wealth is for fitrah, it is a matter of Ishkal.

2042. * If the thing set aside for fitrah is lost, he should replace it if a poor person was available, and the fitrah giver delayed giving it, or, he failed to look after it properly. But, if a poor person was not available, and he cared for it properly, he is not responsible to replace it.

2043. If a deserving person is available in the hometown of a person, the obligatory precaution is that he should not transfer the fitrah to some other place, and if he does and it is lost, he should give its replacement.
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Re: Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

Postby abuali » 31 Aug 2011, 03:17

Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Azha Prayers

1525. Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Azha prayers are obligatory during the time of Imam (A.S.), and it is necessary to offer them in congregation. However during the present times when the Holy Imam is in Occultation, these prayers are Mustahab, and may be offered individually as well as in congregation

1526. The time for Eid prayers is from sunrise till Zuhr.

1527. It is Mustahab that Eid ul Azha prayers is offered after sunrise. As for Eid ul Fitr, it is Mustahab that one should have a breakfast after sunrise, pay Zakatul Fitr and then offer Eid prayers.

1528. * Eid prayers has two Rak'ats. In the first Rak'at, a person should recite Surah al Hamd and a Surah and then they say five takbirs, and after every takbir he should recite qunut. After the fifth qunut, he should say another takbir and then perform Ruku and two Sajdah. He should then stand up and say four takbirs in the second Rak'at, and recite qunut after everyone of these takbirs. Thereafter, he should say the fifth takbir and then perform Ruku and two Sajdah. After the second Sajdah he should recite tashahhud, and then complete the prayers with Salam.

1529. Any recital or Dua will suffice in qunut of the Eid Prayers. However, it is better that the following Dua is recited: Allahumma ahlal kibriya'i wal 'azamah, wa ahlal judi wal jaburat, wa ahlal 'afwi war rahmah, wa ahlat taqwa wal maghfirah. As aluka bihaqqi hazal yawmil lazi ja'altahu lil muslimina 'ida , wali Muhammadin sal lal lahu 'Alaihi wa Alihi, zukhran wa sharafan wa karamatan wa mazida an tusalliya 'ala Muhammad wa Ali Muhammad wa an tudkhilani fi kulli khayrin adkhalta fihi Muhammadan wa Ala Muhammad wa an tukhrijani min kulli su'in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan wa Ala Muhammad salawatuka 'alahi wa 'alahim. Alla humma inni as aluka khayra ma sa alaka bihi ibadukas salihun, wa auzubika mim masta aza minhu ibadukal mukhlasun.

1530. * During the period of 0ccultation of Imam (A.S.), it is an obligatory precaution that two sermons (khutbas) be delivered after Eid prayers, and it is better that on Eid ul-fitr, the sermons should explain rules regarding Zakatul Fitr, and on Eid ul-Azha, rules regarding sacrificing the animals be explained.

1531. No particular Surah has been specified for Eid prayers. But, it is better that after reciting Surah al Hamd in the first Rak'at, Surah Wash Shams be recited and in the second Rak'at Surah al Ghashiya. Or in the first Rak'at, to recite Surah of Sabbi Hism, and in the second Rak'at Surah Wash Shams.

1532. It is recommended that Eid prayers be performed in the open fields. However, in Makkah, it is Mustahab that it should be offered in Masjidul Haram.

1533. It is Mustahab to walk barefooted to attend Eid prayers, with all the dignity, and to do Ghusl before namaz, and to place a white turban on one's head.

1534. It is Mustahab that in Eid prayers Sajdah be performed on earth, and hands be raised while saying takbirs. It is also Mustahab that a person who is offering Eid prayers alone, or as an Imam of the congregation, recites prayers loudly.

1535. It is Mustahab that the following takbirs be said on Eid ul Fitr night (ie night preceding the Eid day), after Maghrib and Isha prayers, and on Eid day after Fajr prayers, as well as after Eid ul fitr prayers: "Allahu Akbar, Alllahu Akbar, la ilaha illal lah wallahu akbar, Allahu Akbar, wa lilla hil hamd, Allahu akbar ala ma hadana""

1536. In Eid ul Azha, it is Mustahab that the above mentioned takbirs be said after ten prayers, of which the first is the Zuhr prayers of Eid day and the last is the Fajr of 12th Zillhajj. It is also Mustahab that after the above mentioned takbirs, the following be recited: "Allahu Akbar 'ala ma razaqana min bahimatil an 'am, wal hamdu lil lahi ala ma ablana".

If, a person happens to be in Mina on the day of Eid ul Azha, it is Mustahab that he should say these takbirs after fifteen prayers, of which the first is Zuhr prayers of Eid day, and the last is the Fajr prayers of the 13th of Zillhajj.

1537. The recommended precaution is that women should avoid going to offer Eid prayers. This precaution does not apply to elderly women.

1538. Like in all other prayers, the follower should recite everything in the Eid prayers, except Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah.

1539. If a follower joins the prayers at a time when the Imam has already said some takbirs, he should, while the Imam performs Ruku, say all the takbirs and qunut which he has missed, and it will be sufficient if in each qunut he says: Subhanallah or Alhamdu lillah only.

1540. If a person joins the Eid prayers when the Imam is in Ruku, he can make niyyat, say the first takbir of the prayers, and then go into Ruku.

1541. If a person forgets one Sajdah in Eid prayers, he should perform it after the prayers. Similarly, if something takes place for which a Sajadatus Sahv would be necessary after daily prayers, it will also be necessary after the Eid prayers.
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Re: Zakaat of Fitrah rules by Seyyid Sistani

Postby Umm.aly » 31 Aug 2011, 20:41

(salam)
Thanks for the post! I always thought that men only had to pray Namaze Eid, didnt realise that we can pray at home as well, and infact it is recommended precaution! (jazakallah)
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